For anyone interested in the history of the development of science, I heartily recommend two books covering more than 2,500 years of the development of Natural Philosophy. The Beginnings of Western Science
by David C. LindbergMaking Modern Science
by Peter J. Bowler and Iwan Rhys Morus
The authors of these books are first and foremost Historians. They also happen to be strongly opposed to Thomas Kuhn's hypothesis of brief and radical "revolutions" in scientific thought. Their preferred interpretation is one of continuous evolution of thought. The authors take pains to place each historical figure in his or her particular social, religious, and intellectual context. Morus and Bowler in particular address the interaction of religion with science with a level of neutrality and detail that is much appreciated.
Lindberg is undoubtedly the better author, offering up engaging and information-rich prose. He draws the reader hither and yon across the vast landscape of ancient and medieval scientific exploration and, like any expert tour guide, points out all the common pitfalls along the way. Where Lindberg leaves off, Bowler and Morus neatly pick up. The style is a little stiffer, and the philosophical arguments against Kuhn are more explicit, but the overall presentation is very approachable and informative. Any reader who completes both texts will have a deeper understanding of what Science is, where it has been, and how it might evolve in the future.